The two types of project failure
There are two types of project failure. You need to manage them differently.
Projects fail. Lots of them. We don’t really know how many, as the statistics vary widely. And most of the statistics are pretty dubious.
They’re gathered using questionable sampling methods. They define failure ambiguously.
And their authors generally have a vested interest in talking up failure rates. They sell solutions to avoid project failure. If there weren’t many failures, they wouldn’t have a job. (I call it the project failure industry. hey need to create the perception of failure).
Nonetheless, I think it’s fair to say that lots of projects do fail.