The Web 2.0 community has been a potent purveyor of myth . One of the myths that Web 2.0's most ardent kool aid drinkers have promoted is that the world of news media has been democratised.

In the process, Old Media institutions such as newspapers are supposedly dying and being replaced by citizen journalists, bloggers and new media startups.

Many have accepted this myth. After all, the erosion of newspaper print revenue, for instance, is often touted as evidence of a dinosauric, elite-driven industry in its last throes.

So it was with great interest that I read the comprehensive The State of the News Media 2008 report issued by the Project for Excellence in Journalism, a research institute that is a part of the Pew Research Center.

The report comes to a conclusion that will shock the kool aid drinkers - contrary to popular belief, not only has news media not been democratised by the internet, the internet is, in a number of ways, helping narrow media coverage and consolidate power in the hands of Old Media entities who are increasingly adapting and finding success online.

Starting with the issue of ownership, the report found that:

"The most popular news sites are still largely owned by the richest media companies, a trend we have noted in previous editions of the annual report.

"Of the top-20 most popular news sites, 17 are owned by one of the 100 largest media companies in terms of total net revenue generated in the U.S. in 2006, based on an analysis of data from Advertising Age and Nielsen Online.

"What’s more, the 10 richest companies are increasing their hold on the top Web sites. In 2007, they owned 30% of the most popular news sites, up from 21% in 2006 and 25% in 2005."

Turning to citizen journalism, the report states:

"The verdict on citizen media for now suggests limitations. And research shows blogs and public affairs Web sites attract a smaller audience than expected and are produced by people with even more elite backgrounds than journalists."

It is observed that despite all the hype around blogs, a 2007 Zogby Poll found that blogs were the least "important" source of news, trailing even "close friends and neighbors" as "an important informational source."

A poll by research firm Synovate in 2007 found that nearly half of Americans who read blogs read them for entertainment while only 15% read them for news and information.

Thus, despite the fact that more people are reading and publishing blogs, blogs are not yet considered a bonafide source of news and information by the mainstream public.

Dedicated citizen journalism websites face their own set of challenges.

Of the growing number of citizen journalism websites, only 21% "reported covering their operating costs" according to research by the University of Maryland's interactive journalism program.

The Project for Excellence in Journalism notes that:

"In the absence of revenue, most appear to be running on the owners’ blood, sweat and tears."

In the past, I have questioned whether those lacking significant resources can really do a great job at reporting the news consistently and reliably.

Clearly, it is going to be difficult for the mainstream to rely on citizen journalists who, for the most part, have not been able to turn their passion into a financially viable enterprise.

Interestingly, blogs and citizen journalism websites are showing a tendency to implement editorial controls similar in nature to their mainstream counterparts that are the source of criticism by Web 2.0 kool aid drinkers:

"...for all that citizen journalism might imply openness and interactivity, the majority of sites analyzed tended to demonstrate the instincts of 'strong gatekeepers' who control the content and are somewhat more difficult to interact with than the ideals of citizen journalism suggest. Now, instead of professionals, those gatekeepers were the bloggers or citizens who ran the sites."

Most of the websites and blogs contained in The Project for Excellence in Journalism's evaluation of the marketplace actually lag mainstream media websites and are "generally more restrictive" in terms of features that promote participation and staff interaction.

David Zurawik of the Baltimore Sun points out the irony in this:

"While longtime giants of American media, such as Time Warner and NBC, are successfully adapting to the digital landscape, citizen journalists and bloggers are emulating old media 'gatekeeper' ways by restricting access to other new voices once they get established online."

Finally, the State of the News Media report also addresses services such as Digg, demonstrating that they are often out of touch with mainstream reality.

For instance, during the week of June 24 to June 29, 2007, the most popular story on Digg was related to the release of the iPhone while the immigration debate in Washington was the most popular story in the mainstream media.

That same week, stories about Iraq accounted for a tenth of mainstream media coverage while it accounted for a hundredth of the coverage on Digg, Reddit and

Clearly, the users of these services are much more concerned about the latest gadgets than topics of national and global importance.'s Charles Cooper, in his article "Were we wrong about tech and the democratization of media?", highlights what is perhaps the most important quote from The State of the News Media report:

"Some people even advocate the notion of "The Long Tail," the idea that, with the Web's infinite potential for depth, millions of niche markets could be bigger than the old mass market dominated by large companies and producers.

"The reality, increasingly, appears more complex. Looking closely, a clear case for democratization is harder to make. Even with so many new sources, more people now consume what old-media newsrooms produce, particularly from print, than before.

"Online, for instance, the top 10 news Web sites, drawing mostly from old brands, are more of an oligarchy, commanding a larger share of audience, than in the legacy media."

Complexity, nuance and perspective seem to be things that Web 2.0 kool aid drinkers have difficulty dealing with.

Industries that are feeling pain because they've been forced to adapt to technological change must be dying. The fact that citizens can now become journalists must mean that there is a complete democratization of news media.

Of course, those with some common sense know that the world is a complex and nuanced place and that a proper perspective is required to evaluate what is really happening.

In his book, The Cult of the Amateur: How Today's Internet is Killing Our Culture, Andrew Keen raises the spectre that legions of often uninformed and unqualified amateurs will destroy important institutions such as the newspaper.

Fortunately, if the extensive research and analysis conducted by the Project for Excellence in Journalism is accurate, we needn't yet worry about the death of these institutions.

Despite all of the forward-looking post-mortems, the Project for Excellence in Journalism reminds us that "more people now consume what old media newsrooms produce, particularly from print, than before" and it isn't the Old Media empires that are being left in the dust.

To the contrary, Old Media is increasingly adapting, experimenting and innovating. If only Web 2.0 would do the same.

Drama 2.0

Published 18 March, 2008 by Drama 2.0

237 more posts from this author

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Comments (7)

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Dave R

I think what happened was that old media finally took the internet seriously and have taken the lead through branding and website layout. The early websites for the old media sites were dreadful. Murdoch planned to ignore it ? I don't even think the express bothered with content. The subscription format has had to be dumped. Theres still plenty of room for new media though, although I can't think of any 'favourites'.

over 10 years ago


Pauline Christie

Blogs may not be considered a bonafide source of news and information by the mainstream public but they are by journalists.

A rapidly growing number of journalists and editors are reading blogs on a daily basis and many major media players have a dedicated team whose job it is to see what citizen journalists are talking about in blogosphere.

Likewise, blogs are an invaluable source of information to online savvy corporates who know that the rantings and ravings of unhappy bloggers can do long term damage to a reputation.

over 10 years ago

Ashley Friedlein

Ashley Friedlein, Founder, Econsultancy & President, Centaur Marketing at EconsultancyStaff

I think this report, and your comments, are largely true for *news* content. However, few blogs are really about 'hard news'. It would certainly be very difficult to compete on that.

Also, I believe this report talks about 'popular' in terms of volume of readers / reach. However, again this is not the same thing as the *value* of those readers. Even in the news world blogs can be *influential* even if not that *popular* so can't quite be discounted.

When you start to look at niche (e.g. B2B) blogs where the content contains deep domain expertise (comment, analysis, how-to rather than news) then I think it becomes much harder for 'big media' to compete. Obviously I would say that this site, and our blog, is an example of this at work and does represent how profitable businesses can be built on the 'long tail' which would be hard to do without the internet as a marketing and distribution channel.

Ashley Friedlein

over 10 years ago


Cyndy Aleo-Carreira

Meh. I don't think it's so much that blogs are replacing traditional media outlets, but that they have forced traditional media to change the way they think.
Before, only cranks would take the time to send a letter to the editor, which is usually buried at the end of the editorials anyway. Now, any schmoe can comment on a news piece on virtually every mainstream site. I think that's a HUGE difference in journalism that's come within the past few years.

Also, as a side note, the CAPTCHA on this site NEVER accepts the code on the first try, and I verify every single time. I think you'd see more comments if it wasn't so frustrating to leave them. Me? I'm just that belligerent.

over 10 years ago


Dave R

I think one thing is for sure. Letting comments below an article makes a news site stickier (and promotes 'democracy', I suppose). I want to judge the mood of the readers and you can have your say too. I look out more for news sites that let me comment. Also sometimes some posters have more insight/wisdom than the journalist. The BBC news articles don't seem right without comments, whereas the times, the mail etc have all taken it on board.

over 10 years ago



One question on point of hard(or serious) newspapers: How many people read printed newspapers becouse of fun? Probably most, 90 %. There is very huge gap betveen marketability of tabloids and serious newpapers. So it will be the same on the net, becouse there are no diferent people. More people will read shit always, but maybe in the blog sphere you will know thats it is only for fun and it is the advantage of blogs for me, that you are not caught in some "news like" ilusion.

almost 10 years ago


News Media

Democratisation of news media is most important key issue of democracy. Blog is arousing & valuable for NEWS MEDIA. News Media is a source through which public come to

What has been happened?

What is going to happen?

So the democracy of media is more important for honest journalism.

over 9 years ago

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