Are you an advertiser running a PPC campaign? Is there something not quite right with your paid search costs? Does your performance data contain unexplained anomalies? 

Have you heard the term ‘click fraud’ bandied around the internet and think that you could be its next victim?

I realise that while writing this introduction I was beginning to sound like a fear-mongering, consumer-based TV show that makes even the most rational people think twice about leaving the house after dark, so I'll stop here.

Is click fraud something you should be aware of, and if so, to what extent does it affect your PPC campaign?

What is click fraud?

As I discussed in the last week’s introductory article on PPC, what is paid search and why do we need it, a company can bid on certain search terms on a search engine network, and therefore pay to appear higher in sponsored listings on the SERPs. 

Straightforward enough, but what if your costs are greatly exceeding your expectations or regularly coming from the same ISP and without a conversion? This could be click fraud.

The Econsultancy Paid Search Best Practice Guide describes click fraud as happening when: 

A third-party generates invalid clicks on a paid advertising link to drive up advertising costs with no intention of conducting business with the advertiser.

Who would do this to you?

  • Your competitor: The most obvious perpetrator. "I’ve started my own business, my competitor is ranked higher in sponsored listings, I’m going to nefariously click on its ads to drive up its costs for that search term and therefore push them out of the market, and then my own business can overtake or replace them in the sponsored listing".
  • Site owners: Publishers themselves can click on their own website ads, and therefore make their own site more attractive for ad placement.
  • Customers:  Customers can accidentally add to click fraud when they regularly click through on paid search ads to regularly access a site, rather than using search or a bookmark.

How is click fraud committed?

There are two methods of click fraud. Automated and manual.

Automated click fraud uses software to repeatedly click on your ads. Manual click fraud is done by actual people, either from within a rival company or from outside the company hired to physically click through your ads.

What can you do to stop it?

Thankfully automatic click fraud is easy to trace, as it normally comes from the same IP address. Manual click fraud is harder to trace, especially as much manual click fraud could be construed as accidental.

Google has a click quality team, but is of course fairly clandestine about how they operate and monitor for click fraud, however Google has devised a three tiered system to deal with the threat.

  • Automatic filter. This filters out invalid clicks in real time. They don’t appear in your reports and you’re not charged for them.
  • Proactive Analysis. Google’s team investigates anomalies and fluctuations. If anything erroneous appears to have been carried out, your company will be credited.
  • Your own analysis. You can raise a query yourself with Google by filling in an online form and submitting information from your own investigation.

This third step is hugely important. The only way to have complete confidence in steering your costs away from the threat of click fraud, is to monitor the situation yourself, don't just rely on Google or any of the other search engine networks you advertise on to police your traffic.

We recommend a five step best practice process for monitoring and reducing click fraud:

  • Identify metrics to audit.
  • Consider use of specialist software for tracking these metrics.
  • Audit metric values to create a benchmark.
  • Review current metric values against benchmark values.
  • When benchmark thresholds are exceeded present audited data to search engines.

There's much greater detail and insight into the above processes in our Paid Search guide to help your business monitor and avoid click fraud.

Is Click Fraud really that much of a problem?

It's hard to tell. Click fraud is a secret world of underhand tactics and unethical murk, so of course there's no real hard data. How many pickpockets operate in the Wetherspoons next door? How many identity thieves rifle through your bin at night looking through your unshredded documents?

The answer to these questions depends somewhat on subjective analysis and how liberal or reactionary your politics are.

There are some statistics out there though, but do take these with a pinch of salt:

USA Today claim that in the first three months of 2010, between 17% and 29% of all online clicks are fraudulent. This is significantly up from Click Forensics' claim that in 2009 the rate was 12.7%.

Microsoft in 2011 claimed that click fraud is 'rampant' and has 'incontrovertible evidence of dubious behaviour for around half of the search ad clicks and a third of the mobile ad clicks'.

Statistics seem to dry up post 2011.

The future?

If click fraud is to be eradicated completely then there is a solution. Forget cost-per-click (CPC) or cost-per-impressions (CPM), how about cost-per-action (CPA)? Where the advertiser only pays when a user has clicked through the ad and made a conversion, or completed a specific action, like filling out a form or signing up to a newsletter.

Seems fair, right?

Possibly. The downside is that revenue for the search engine networks would be significantly less, PPC represents the largest revenue stream for Google, so there would be understandable resistance, and goodness knows what the knock-on effect would be for ecommerce in general.

Perhaps there's another solution? Perhaps we need some more concrete data on click fraud before we can even begin to gauge the depth of its affect and figure out ways to alter the current paid search system.

Has your business been affected with click fraud? Or do you have any more tips or research that may shed light on the topic? Then please let me know in the comments section below.

For more information on the future of paid search, read our post on what will Google's paid search ads look like in 2014.

Further reading for beginners

During my first year at Econsultancy I’ve been making a point of writing beginner’s guides to any new terms or phrases I find particularly baffling, or that I might suspect other people may find baffling too. 

The following related articles should help clear up a few things… 

Christopher Ratcliff

Published 19 November, 2013 by Christopher Ratcliff

Christopher Ratcliff is the editor of Methods Unsound. He was the Deputy Editor of Econsultancy. You can follow him on Twitter or connect via Google+ and LinkedIn

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Comments (10)

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James .

James ., Director, Digital Strategy & Optimisation at Personal


A really timely article as this tends to be the season where everyone ramps up their online advertising to ensure they are seen in the right places each time.

I like your point about taking ownership and being responsible for your own analysis, not just relying on Google. It makes a really strong case for ensuring that you get to know your data so you can spot anomalies and if required, react and possibly adapt.

over 4 years ago

Neale Gilhooley

Neale Gilhooley, MD at Evolution Design Ltd

What to do when my Google AdWords account has billed me for a click and my Google Analytics is saying that there is no visit?

How do I get Google to verify Google?

over 4 years ago


John McElborough, MD at Inbound360

Definitely something all advertisers need to be aware of. If your search spend is significant its worth investing in detection software, although thats by no means completely reliable. The real problem is for small advertisers and local businesses who would never be able to identify or really quantify the amount they're spending for competitors to click on their ads. The reality is there's no way Google can detect click fraud at a local, manual level. This is scaring off a huge number of small advertisers so it surprises me google don't make their anti-click fraud measures more public.

over 4 years ago


josh shapiro, manager at none

Every advertiser must be responsible and check his ppc advertising costs. Being a victim to click fraud is very easy and in most cases, the chances are that you will not even relise there is a click fraud situation in your campaign. I was a victim to click fraud and used the service offered at to meter my traffic and block all fraudulent IPs.It's a good click fraud protection service.

One way or another, it's a good idea for google to switch into cost per action instead of ppc as the writer suggests.

over 4 years ago


Corey Hahn, Marketing Manager at PureClick

Hi Christopher,

Great Article. I would love to discuss with you how we can do a follow up interview with Tim Rodgers, from PureClick, a solution software provider. Please let me know how I can best reach you to discuss this more. I think the following here would love some more information.

over 3 years ago


Jason Gould, Managing Director at Birmingham Locksmith 24/7

This issue has still not been addressed properly and since this article many software providers have popped up to provide human controls on click fraud. I'm a locksmith and have been using for the last 2 years. I wouldn't be able to run my ads without protection now.

almost 2 years ago


Gary Willis, Technician at Pest control

I am a constant target of click fraud.
Google have said to me they know its happening to me yet cannot do anything.
I have installed a click fraud software but still it continues.

over 1 year ago


Romain Jaquolet, Co-founder at PayPerTalent

I just found this article about a click fraud detection platform has anyone had any experience working with ClickCease software to prevent bots and competitors from clicking on your ads?

about 1 year ago


Moses Levi, PPC manager at FireMedia Inc

We have tried tons of campaign optimization in order to stop our competitors click fraud issue... The thing is when your competitors are smart and shady at the same time, you're screwed. So no matter what change/optimization we did (location, device, keywords, etc.) they kept finding us clicking our ads, costing us around $400/day! We hired at least 4 different click fraud prevention companies and found to be the most efficient as they are the only provider that actually reduce my click fraud rate drastically. They made our competitors stop clicking our ads since it's probably wasn't beneficial for them keep doing it.

about 1 month ago

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